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Neurobiology Of Religion.

Neurobiology Of Religion.

Two interesting and related articles..

Cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief. ( Free PMC Article )


We propose an integrative cognitive neuroscience framework for understanding the cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief. Our analysis reveals 3 psychological dimensions of religious belief (God’s perceived level of involvement, God’s perceived emotion, and doctrinal/experiential religious knowledge), which functional MRI localizes within networks processing Theory of Mind regarding intent and emotion, abstract semantics, and imagery. Our results are unique in demonstrating that specific components of religious belief are mediated by well-known brain networks, and support contemporary psychological theories that ground religious belief within evolutionary adaptive cognitive functions.

Brain networks shaping religious belief. ( Free PMC Article )


We previously demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that religious belief depends upon three cognitive dimensions, which can be mapped to specific brain regions. In the present study, we considered these co-activated regions as nodes of three networks each one corresponding to a particular dimension, corresponding to each dimension and examined the causal flow within and between these networks to address two important hypotheses that remained untested in our previous work. First, we hypothesized that regions involved in theory of mind (ToM) are located upstream the causal flow and drive non-ToM regions, in line with theories attributing religion to the evolution of ToM. Second, we hypothesized that differences in directional connectivity are associated with differences in religiosity. To test these hypotheses, we performed a multivariate Granger causality-based directional connectivity analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate the causal flow within religious belief-related networks. Our results supported both hypotheses. Religious subjects preferentially activated a pathway from inferolateral to dorsomedial frontal cortex to monitor the intent and involvement of supernatural agents (SAs; intent-related ToM). Perception of SAs engaged pathways involved in fear regulation and affective ToM. Religious beliefs are founded both on propositional statements for doctrine, but also on episodic memory and imagery. Beliefs based on doctrine engaged a pathway from Broca’s to Wernicke’s language areas. Beliefs related to everyday life experiences engaged pathways involved in imagery. Beliefs implying less involved SAs and evoking imagery activated a pathway from right lateral temporal to occipital regions. This pathway was more active in non-religious compared to religious subjects, suggesting greater difficulty and procedural demands for imagining and processing the intent of SAs. Insights gained by Granger connectivity analysis inform us about the causal binding of individual regions activated during religious belief processing.

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Opioid Dose Equivalents

Drug Qty per tab/ml Subling Bup.Equiv(mg)
Pentazocine 30 mg/ml 0.4
Buprenorphine 0.6 mg/2ml 1.2
Tapentadol 50 mg 0.3
Codeine 200 mg/100ml 1.2mg
Methadone 5mg/ml 1-2mg
Morphine 10mg/ml 0.4
Propoxyphene 100mg 0.2-0.3



Doses equivalent to 0.4mg of Buprenorphine

Drug Parenteral(mg) Oral(mg)
Morphine 10 30
Codeine 100 200
Fentanyl 0.1  
Hydrocodone   30
Hydromorphone 1.5 7.5
Meperidine 100 300
Tramadol 100 120
Oxymorphone 1 10
Propoxyphene   130-200



Spasmo-Proxyvon – Dicyclomine¬† 10mg, Acetaminophen 400 mg’ Propoxyphene 100 mg.

Spasmoproxyvon Plus – Dicyclomine 10 MG+Paracetamol 325 MG+Tramadol 50 MG

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Anna Freud on qualities of a Psychoanalyst

I think that a psychoanalyst should have… interests… beyond the limits of the medical field… in facts that belong to sociology, religion, literature, [and] history,… [otherwise] his outlook on… his patient will remain too narrow. This point contains… the necessary preparations beyond the requirements made on candidates of psychoanalysis in the institutes. You ought to be a great reader and become acquainted with the literature of many countries and cultures. In the great literary figures you will find people who know at least as much of human nature as the psychiatrists and psychologists try to do.